Mathematics and Applied Mathematics
April 13, 2021
foundation of Euclidean geometry, sidedness, straightness, orthogonality, parallelism, convergence.
This article introduces a new foundation for Euclidean geometry more productive than other classical and modern alternatives. Some well-known classical propositions that were proved to be unprovable on the basis of other foundations of Euclidean geometry can now be proved within the new foundational framework. Ten axioms, 28 definitions and 40 corollaries are the key elements of the new formal basis. The axioms are totally new, except Axiom 5 (a light form of Euclid’s Postulate 1), and Axiom 8 (an extended version of Euclid’s Postulate 3). The definitions include productive definitions of concepts so far primitive, or formally unproductive, as straight line, angle or plane The new foundation allow to prove, among other results, the following axiomatic statements: Euclid's First Postulate, Euclid's Second Postulate, Hilbert's Axioms I.5, II.1, II.2, II.3, II.4 and IV.6, Euclid's Postulate 4, Posidonius-Geminus' Axiom, Proclus' Axiom, Cataldi's Axiom, Tacquet's Axiom 11, Khayyam's Axiom, Playfair's Axiom, and an extended version of Euclid's Fifth Postulate.