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Analyse critique des origines du Principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg


Michaud, André


Research Papers


Quantum Theory / Particle Physics



Date Published:

May 19, 2024




Vitesse de l'onde de phase ; Mécanique ondulatoire ; Mécanique matricielle ; Mécanique quantique ; Principe d'incertitude


Analyse des étapes initiales du processus logique suivi par Louis de Broglie dans l'établissement de l'équation de l'onde de phase de l'électron dans sa thèse de 1924 qui a déclenché le développement de la Mécanique ondulatoire lorsqu'Erwin Schrödinger formalisa ce concept avec son équation d'onde vectorielle. Ce développement fut bientôt suivi par la Mécanique quantique, lorsque Schrödinger prouva que la Mécanique matricielle développée indépendamment par Werner Heisenberg était équivalente à la Mécanique ondulatoire; les deux théories laissant place à un certain degré d'incertitude quant à la localisation physique de l'électron en mouvement. C'est ce qui conduisit Heisenberg à également formaliser le Principe d'incertitude pour tenir compte de cette situation. Ce principe fut bientôt considéré comme un principe axiomatique fondamental qui semblait rendre impossible, pour la plupart des chercheurs, toute nouvelle exploration plus avant du niveau de magnitude subatomique. Analyse de l'utilisation historique de la mauvaise fréquence qui a donné lieu au concept de groupe d'ondes pour représenter l'énergie du momentum de l'électron développé par Louis de Broglie, et au Principe d'incertitude développé par Werner Heisenberg.


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