All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Kinematics of Balls and Light Versus Theory of Special Relativity – V3


Dambi, Filip


Research Papers


Mechanics / Electrodynamics



Date Published:

May 3, 2024




kinematic of balls; kinematics of light; geometrical optics; emission of light; dragging of light; propagation of light; reflection of light; speed of light; observation of light; dragging of light by moving mediums; Lorentz’s transformation; specia


The study of emission, propagation, and reflection of balls in Newtonian mechanics, employing the laws of conservation of momentum and energy when the mass of balls converges to zero, concludes that the kinematics of light is like that of massless balls. The kinematics of light explains why light speed is the constant c in each inertial frame in which the light source and reflective mirror are at rest, why the laws of physics have the same form in each inertial frame, and why any light experiment in an inertial frame cannot prove the motion of that inertial frame. The following law of mechanics governs the kinematics of balls and electromagnetic radiation: Each inertial frame drags at its velocity the balls and electromagnetic radiation emitted by bodies at rest in that inertial frame. The theory of special relativity misapplies symmetry observed in phenomena to two inertial frames; therefore, it duplicates a physics phenomenon from one inertial frame, considered stationary, into another. It has multiple issues rooted in Lorentz's and Einstein's transformations. For example, transformations offer light speed at the constant c in the moving and opposite directions of the inertial frame. At the same time, it is variable in any other direction, converging to infinite. Time contraction in the moving direction of the inertial frame is different from time dilation in the opposite direction. It requires a ruler and time synchronization in each direction.


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