All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Towards a discrete cosmology. Paper 15/17. The origin of the universe.


Leon, Antonio


Research Papers





Date Published:

December 30, 2023




Big Bang theory, Theorem of the Consistent Universe, Theorem of Formal Dependence, Corollary of Discrete Threshold, flat universe, finite universe, irreversible time, Augustine of Hippo, Kant antinomy, infinite regress of causes, first cause.


This article discusses one of the most fundamental problems in cosmology, and therefore of this series of articles: the origin of the universe. The Corollary 5.6 of the Discrete Threshold makes the laws of physics inoperable in the first discrete interval of time of the history of the universe. Although for other reasons, the same conclusion holds for the first discrete (quantum) time interval (0, t_p) defined by the Planck time t_p. So, contemporary physics can only describe the history of the universe after that first lapse of time. Hence, the problem posed by the origin of the universe cannot be solved with the sole help of the physical laws. And, in fact, all the solutions proposed in the framework of contemporary physics are pseudo-solutions or evasions of the problem. This article demonstrates that this is the case. In fact, the only consistent way to approach the problem of the origin of the universe is to deal with the infinite regress of causes and its formal consequences, demonstrated in article 8 of this series of articles. This confrontation leads to a unique solution that will have to be approached without religious or anti-religious prejudices.

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