BENEFITS OF BECOMING A GS JOURNAL MEMBER LEARN MORE
All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Preliminary Solution to the Rydberg Equation Limitation

Author:

McCutcheon, David A.

Category:

Research Papers

Sub-Category:

Quantum Theory / Particle Physics

Language:

English

Date Published:

September 14, 2022

Downloads:

11

Keywords:

N/A

Abstract:

Regardless of the theory used for understanding atomic construction, equations that define atomic spectra must include as a derivative the Rydberg equation describing hydrogen and other single-electron ions. The following work product is evidence that defining all elemental spectra is achievable by merely changing some assumptions. The first assumption is that using integers in calculating spectra is incorrect. The second is that spin values for electrons in atoms begin at a ground state level and increase in spin-1 increments due to adding photons of spin-1. The third assumption is that photons are dual spin-1/2 composites. Using spin-1/2 as a basis produces a set of Rydberg-style equations providing spectra for all elements and their many ionic forms. The presented examples, hydrogen through neon, plus phosphorus, a spin-1/2 nucleus, reveal the equation behavior for elements of varying character. Unfortunately, determining which spectral lines dominate in multiple electron atoms is not straightforward without a solid theoretical underpinning. Current theory is lacking or it would be able to provide a similar solution. The term ‘preliminary’ in the title indicates that more than one equation solution exists for multi-electron ions. The equation sets provided represent the most logical and reasonable solutions. Although dominant line prediction is not yet forthcoming, an explanation for photon production using a combination of equation components is proffered.

<<< Back