**Author:**

McCutcheon, David A.

**Category:**

Research Papers

**Sub-Category:**

Quantum Theory / Particle Physics

**Date Published:**

September 14, 2022

**Abstract:**

Regardless of the theory used for understanding atomic construction, equations that define atomic spectra must include as a derivative the Rydberg equation describing hydrogen and other single-electron ions. The following work product is evidence that defining all elemental spectra is achievable by merely changing some assumptions. The first assumption is that using integers in calculating spectra is incorrect. The second is that spin values for electrons in atoms begin at a ground state level and increase in spin-1 increments due to adding photons of spin-1. The third assumption is that photons are dual spin-1/2 composites. Using spin-1/2 as a basis produces a set of Rydberg-style equations providing spectra for all elements and their many ionic forms. The presented examples, hydrogen through neon, plus phosphorus, a spin-1/2 nucleus, reveal the equation behavior for elements of varying character. Unfortunately, determining which spectral lines dominate in multiple electron atoms is not straightforward without a solid theoretical underpinning. Current theory is lacking or it would be able to provide a similar solution. The term ‘preliminary’ in the title indicates that more than one equation solution exists for multi-electron ions. The equation sets provided represent the most logical and reasonable solutions. Although dominant line prediction is not yet forthcoming, an explanation for photon production using a combination of equation components is proffered.

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