All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Refraction of Single Photons vs Wave Theory


Sokolov, Gennadiy


Research Papers


Mathematical Physics



Date Published:

June 3, 2022




refraction of light, wave theory, single photon, atom of the interface


For almost 400 years, the wave theory has been explaining the refraction of light by changing the speed of wave fronts at the interface between media, and no other theory offers another explanation.....And yet, until now, neither wave theory nor quantum mechanics can explain why on the interface of media, not only a wide wave front, but also a single photon changes the direction of motion. And a single photon changes the direction of motion exactly like the wave fronts of a light beam . In this work, it is shown that the direction of light movement changes not due to the fact that the velocity changes at the interface between media, as was assumed in the 17th century by Huygens and Snell, but because of the interaction of each photon with first re-emitting atom of the interface between media.


Steve Olah(Laguna Woods, United States):
You are correct, that a single photon acts independently from every other photon. Photons are half wavelength diameter solitons. A green photon of 500 nm has a diameter of 250 nm and its own velocity vector independent from other photons' velocity vector. This 250 nm would span about 700 atoms in most matter of interest. Refraction and reflection are the result of interaction between the solitons and the atoms in the wall of the medium. For reference, please see solitons in Wikipedia.

Posted: April 19, 2023 @ 1:13:31 am

Add a Comment

<<< Back