**Author:**

Abdullahi, Musa Daji

**Category:**

Research Papers

**Sub-Category:**

Relativity Theory

**Date Published:**

March 6, 2022

**Keywords:**

Acceleration Electric charge, energy, Field, mass, velocity

**Abstract:**

Coulomb’s law is modified by incorporating a velocity factor and with Newton’s second law of motion, to account for emission of radiation from accelerated charged particles. It gives the speed of light c as the ultimate limit to which a charged particle may be accelerated by an electric field, with mass remaining constant at the rest mass mo. A “radiative electrodynamics” is introduced, where a charged particle is accelerated to the limiting speed of light, not because mass increases with speed, becoming infinitely large at the speed of light, according to special relativity. But it is a result of accelerating force reducing to zero at the speed of light. Lorentz factor, in special relativity, is found to have nothing to do with mass, length or time. The factor is due to motion of a charged particle perpendicular to an electric field. A mass-energy equivalence law is derived as En = ½ mc2, in contrast to the relativistic formula En = mc2. Rutherford’s nuclear model of the hydrogen atom, with electrons revolving in circular orbits, is shown to be stable, without radiation and no need for Bohr’s quantum theory to fix it. The paper attempts to unify electrostatic and gravitational forces. It succeeds in showing that electrons can attain the speed of light, without infinitely large masses moving in particle accelerators.

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