**Category:**

Research Papers

**Sub-Category:**

Quantum Theory / Particle Physics

**Date Published:**

July 8, 2021

**Abstract:**

All baryons were investigated to determine if they can be modeled with the onium model using only electrons, protons and neutrons. Milne, Feynman, and Sternglass discovered the relativistic positronium solution which has the mass of a neutral pion. Relativistic mass increases in steps of me/α and me/2α per particle which is consistent with known mass quantization. The onium solution applies to any pairs of particles or resonances and they can also be collocated and combined with non-relativistic particles or resonances. In the onium model, pions are positronium, kaons are pionium, D mesons are kaonium, and B mesons are Donium. Baryons have a non-relativistic nucleon combined with mesons with charmed baryons having a kaonium resonance while bottom baryons have a Donium resonance. The results show the composition, charge, and mass of all baryons can be accurately modeled using the onium model. Of the 76 charmed and bottom baryons modeled here, 74 mass estimates are within 0.2% relative error. Models for an additional 88 baryons are shown to demonstrate that the composition, charge, and mass of all baryons are consistent with onium theory. Quarks are unnecessary.

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