Quantum Theory / Particle Physics
July 2, 2021
Protons are known to scatter particles at their charge radius and this spherical structure is thought to be made of quantum fluctuations. Using the proton’s mass in the magnetic moment calculation is assuming a radius of λp/2 = 0.6607 fm. Given a radius based on the electron g-factor, the proton’s outer radius would be 0.9215553217 fm which is just above the 0.831-0.916 fm range of measured radii. Since the shell is made of quantum fluctuations there are smaller mean and rms radii. If the mean radius is 0.8414 fm, the rms radius is 0.8815 fm which would explain the proton radius puzzle as measurements are clustered at the mean, rms, and outer radii. The proton’s shell excludes zero-point energy equal to the proton’s mass-energy when the quantum shell has inner and outer radii of 0.79041 fm and 0.92156 fm. When the proton’s outer radius of 0.9215553217 fm is used in the calculation, its angular momentum is 0.6974030941ħ instead of ħ/2 calling standard model spin theory into question. This paper shows how the proton’s charge, spin, angular momentum, magnetic moment, and mass, are due to the quantum spherical shell at its charge radius. Protons may consist entirely of quantum fluctuations as quarks are unnecessary to explain a proton’s properties.