Quantum Theory / Particle Physics
July 27, 2020
geometric axes, dinucleon, diproton, deuteronic pair, nuclear geometry, axialhexagon, axial-octagon, trihexagon, reciprocity, antimagic, nonmagic, orthotriplex, nonstereotypy, fractionations, colocation, octupole nuclei, prolate nuclei, geometric symmetry
An extended 3-D geometric model for atomic nuclei explains odd-N stability in the heavier elements as well as prolate and octupole nuclei through the identification of four new magic numbers – 42, 60, 70 & 104-107 – and explanations for their stability. In elucidating the antimagic isotopes and isotones, six (underlined) principles of geometric arrangement emerge, only the first partly appreciated at present. Reciprocity of the nuclear geometry based on dinucleon axes explains the smaller and stable nuclei of group IV. Fractionations of 50 reveal inherently stable arrangements that can combine with others to ensure the stability of larger nuclei. Colocations of 5-fold and 4-fold geometric arrangements within any nucleus permit further magic stability, notably magic numbers 28 and 82. Stereotypy of semimagic number 14, with a hexagonal arrangement of nucleons around each axis, explains the stability of new magic number 42 and of 126 as an extension thereof; the stability of 48Z and 54Z are explained through combination with the fractionations. Spherical magic numbers of 60 & 80 nucleons are explained by a 5-fold geometry analogous to fullerene structures; these elucidate most larger nuclei and particularly the Z arrangement stability of Thorium and Uranium. Prolate 70 is the arrangement for many heavier nuclei. From the reciprocity of 37, there emerges a new structure within 104-107 nucleons, the orthotriplex.