All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Funge: Functional Grammatical Evolution


Shayda, Dara O


Research Papers





Date Published:

January 27, 2020




Grammatical Evolution, Evolutionary Computing


Prof. Conor Ryan [email protected] Dara O Shayda (LoG) [email protected] Imran Gholizadeh (CCN) [email protected] Grammatical Evolution has been a quantum leap in human cognition of the evolutionary systems which its mutations (Crossovers) output valid words in some specific grammar. The fact that such systems could be programmed and used to actually solve problems is quiet an achievement. However the underlying operators and the grammars have been quite simple and to extend the grammar one needs to handcraft quite a large new grammar. Funge is a Functional based Grammatical Evolution which uses all the functional facilities of Mathematica and access to its vast mathematical functions to create tiny grammars with amazing expansions of operators and functionals. Moreover there are no limitations to the input array i.e. being integers, now they could be any data type e.g. images or audio output-ing words valid in some grammar! Variables and Expressions and Data and geometries and formulas and images and audio and many other data types could be confused with each other to produce a powerful programming environment for Funge to generate code. Random Operators e.g. Random Differential Operators and quite sophisticated random structures could be created with varying statistical distributions. Finally grammar itself is also a system variable and could be evolved as do the other parts of the Funge.

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