Biology / Medicine
January 4, 2019
classification, cladistics, phylogeny, red algae, fossil record, rapid evolution
An update to my book Empire Biota is presented. Eight taxons have been added: Colponema, Fonticula, Telonema, Katablepharidae, Haplosporidia, Paramyxia, Ellobiopsida, and Hemimastigota, and Celestina and Heterolobosa were split, making 51 taxons, including the hypothetical ancestor. And 17 characteristics have been added and 6 have been excluded (because of errors), making 331. The results show that only 13 clades are convincingly supported out of a possible 41, but Celestina and Heterolobosa are among them, and the confidence for Opisthokonta and Foramaxia were substantially higher than in the previous analysis. It is also emphasized, as in the book, that Archeoplastida and Rhizaria are artificial taxons and that basal eukaryotes are autotrophs, which agrees with the fossil record. Also presented are a somewhat revised convenience classification, as well as additional material on geological time scales, which discuss rapid evolution, rapid fossilization, rapid geological processes, and the overestimation of fossil dating, so a young Earth is favoured.