**Author:**

Kalanov, Temur Z.

**Category:**

Research Papers

**Date Published:**

December 26, 2018

**Keywords:**

origin and formation of the Universe, background radiations, cosmology, observational cosmology, general physics, foundations of theoretical physics, atomic and molecular physics, mathematical physics, education, formal logic, philosophy of science

**Abstract:**

The critical analysis of the foundations of cosmology is proposed. The unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis for the analysis. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the Hubble law represents the formal-logical error because the Hubble formula contradicts to the correct definition of the speed of motion of the material object; (2) the Doppler effect represents the physical error because the speed of motion of the photon does not depend on the speed of motion of the radiating atom. The correct explanation of the red shift is that the frequency shift of the radiation is the result of a shift in the energy spectrum of the radiating atom; (3) the theory of “hot” Universe represents the physical error because the Universe is the “cold” Universe at any point of time. The correct explanation is that the background radiation is described by the Planck function (Planck's formula). The Planck function (Planck's formula) characterizes the equilibrium state of the isolated and closed macroscopic system “photon gas + gas of radiating atoms” (where temperature is the statistical temperature of the radiating atom). Consequently: (a) the Universe represents the isolated and closed system at any point of time; (b) the total energy of the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time; (c) the low temperature of substance in the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time....

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