All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Comparing Relativistic Theories Against Observed Perihelion Shifts of Icarus and Mercury


Deines, Steve D.


Research Papers


Relativity Theory



Date Published:

June 5, 2017




Timescales, Perihelion Shift, Post-Newtonian Approximation, Relativity


This paper compares the post-Newtonian approximation (PNA) to general relativity (GR) for the relativistic perihelion shift calculations. Nelson’s PNA predicts 5/6 of GR’s perihelion shift. Using the original Universal Time (UT), Shapiro’s accurate, highly elliptical orbit for Icarus corroborates PNA while GR exceeds the error boundary. The Icarus result was λ = 0.75 ± 0.08 where λ=1 for GR and λ=0 for Newtonian theory. Studies of Mercury’s perihelion shift used timescales equivalent to lunar Ephemeris Time (ET) with the present Système International (SI) second, the basic time unit for all atomic timescales like International Atomic Time (TAI). Atomic timescales run faster than UT, because the SI second is 2.468E-8 s shorter than the original UT second. This is confirmed by the two observational reports using the original calibration data of 1955-1958, by the Improved Lunar Ephemeris used in the original calibration, by the linear divergence of TAI versus UT during 1958-1998, and by the 2.1 ms mean excess between a UT day and TAI day during 1958-1998. An ET timescale creates an additional, artificial perihelion shift for Mercury of 6.433”/cy. Other renowned relativists used a 1973 update for Earth’s general precession that now excludes the GR Mercury prediction while including the PNA prediction if the artificial Mercury shift is included in the calculations. Apparently, Nelson’s PNA is more accurate than GR.

<<< Back