All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Measuring Velocity of Moving Inertial Frames with Light Transmissions


Deines, Steve D.


Research Papers


Relativity Theory



Date Published:

June 5, 2017




Simultaneity, Relativity, Timing, Speed of Light


Newton’s Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy provided the foundation of classical physics. This paper reviews several of his critical definitions, his three axioms, key corollaries, and concept of inertial frames. Newton’s first axiom or law requires the vector addition of velocities by Corollary I to translate the equation of motion of a constantly moving body from one inertial frame to another inertial frame. His relativity principle in Corollary V is often expanded to mean that any equation retains the same form in all inertial frames. This is true if the equations involve only Newtonian forces, but equations that specify velocity need to include the mutual velocity between moving inertial frames to fully transform the results between all reference frames. The speed of light parameter must correctly incorporate the mutual velocity between moving inertial frames. It is assumed the speed of light is a constant in all directions only in absolutely stationary, nongravitated reference frames, which is less restrictive than the assumption of universal speed of light in all inertial frames. A test is outlined with suggested equipment to measure the one-way speed of light simultaneously in three dimensions. Equations are provided to convert the results into the instantaneous directional velocity of the laboratory frame. It will take years to separate Earth’s different velocities and accelerations.

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