**Category:**

Research Papers

**Sub-Category:**

Mechanics / Electrodynamics

**Date Published:**

January 17, 2017

**Keywords:**

candela, ampere, Maxwell’s equations, Lorentz force

**Abstract:**

This paper highlights that the basic time unit of the International System second is shorter than the original Universal Time second, which causes the International Atomic Time to run faster than Universal Time. This paper also discusses that the mole, candela, and ampere are functional definitions and depend on other basic physical quantities of physics. Ampere in currents combines charge and time units, making it a functional quantity—not fundamental. The setup to measure an ampere underscores a paradox with inertial frames. Forces between current-carrying wires that are also moving can be explained only by an absolutely stationary frame. Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations are empirical results. The Lorentz electromagnetic force, which is velocity dependent, violates Newton’s second law and the Equivalence Principle concerning inertial frames. If a Newtonian force, such as gravity, accelerates all points parallel and equally at each instant of time within the domain of a reference frame, then that frame is mathematically equivalent to an absolutely stationary frame. In an absolutely stationary frame, the speed of light and other electrical quantities are guaranteed to be a universal constants. Any slight variation of Newtonian forces within a laboratory is virtually undetectable with electromagnetic phenomena. Thus, Maxwell’s equations are valid only within an absolutely stationary reference frame.

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