All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Functional Basic Units of Physics and Reference Frames that Preserve Maxwell’s Equations


Deines, Steve D.


Research Papers


Mechanics / Electrodynamics



Date Published:

January 17, 2017




candela, ampere, Maxwell’s equations, Lorentz force


This paper highlights that the basic time unit of the International System second is shorter than the original Universal Time second, which causes the International Atomic Time to run faster than Universal Time. This paper also discusses that the mole, candela, and ampere are functional definitions and depend on other basic physical quantities of physics. Ampere in currents combines charge and time units, making it a functional quantity—not fundamental. The setup to measure an ampere underscores a paradox with inertial frames. Forces between current-carrying wires that are also moving can be explained only by an absolutely stationary frame. Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations are empirical results. The Lorentz electromagnetic force, which is velocity dependent, violates Newton’s second law and the Equivalence Principle concerning inertial frames. If a Newtonian force, such as gravity, accelerates all points parallel and equally at each instant of time within the domain of a reference frame, then that frame is mathematically equivalent to an absolutely stationary frame. In an absolutely stationary frame, the speed of light and other electrical quantities are guaranteed to be a universal constants. Any slight variation of Newtonian forces within a laboratory is virtually undetectable with electromagnetic phenomena. Thus, Maxwell’s equations are valid only within an absolutely stationary reference frame.

<<< Back