October 4, 2016
simultaneity, synchronization, timing, speed of light
Although seemingly different, these topics are all related to timing events. Einstein gave examples of simultaneous events as witnessed by one inertial observer may not be simultaneous for other inertial observers. This paper eliminates a common misconception. Simultaneous events are confused with separated events occurring at the same coordinate time. Simultaneous events are witnessed by all observers, whether inertial or accelerated, because observers are in the neighborhood of the simultaneous point. Chronometric events occur at the same coordinate time of a reference frame, but at separate locations. Einstein’s train scenario involving dual lightning strikes is explained by Newtonian physics without relativity. The mathematics concerning an embellished version of Einstein’s train scenario is derived in this paper. Synchronizing coordinate clocks to less than 1 ns is difficult. Unless the whole velocity between the transmission and the observer’s local frame is known, synchronizing coordinate clocks is impossible by electronic transmission through free space. An experiment is suggested to obtain the effective velocity using one-way measurements for the speed of light to improve clock synchronization by several orders..