All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Die Epochen und Perioden der kapitalistischen Entwicklung


Güveniş, Halil


Research Papers





Date Published:

September 26, 2016






After giving a critical reappraisal of the conventional Marxist view about the eras and periods of capitalist development, we show on the basis of the historical development profile of the depreciation rate and the depreciation velocity in the USA, that capitalism can be economically divided in Marx's and Mandel's terms into three eras: 1. Manufactory Capitalism (1700-1770), 2. Large Industry (1770-1950), 3. Control of Production Means by Electronic Devices (1950-?). Furthermore, we show on the basis of historical development profile of the net investment rate in the USA, that capitalism can be economically divided, depending on specification of the characteristic variables (the saving rate of the private sector, the general government balance and net lending from abroad), into seven periods: 1. Primitive Accumulation (1700-1740), 2. Self-Accumulation (1750-1800), 3. Increased Accumulation (1810-1880), 4. Forced Accumulation (1890-1920), 5. Reduced Accumulation (1930), 6. Accumulation due to the War (1940), 7. Consolidated Accumulation (1950-?)---- Nach einer kritischen Aufarbeitung der gängigen marxistischen Darstellung über die Epochen und Perioden der kapitalistischen Entwicklung zeigen wir anhand des historischen Entwicklungsprofils der Abschreibungsquote und der Abschreibungsgeschwindigkeit in den USA, dass der Kapitalismus in Marxʼ und Mandels Begriffen ökonomisch gesehen in drei Epochen eingeteilt werden kann: ...

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