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Nucleotopes ―The Nuclei of the Isotopes


Williams, Joel Mann


Research Papers


Quantum Theory / Particle Physics



Date Published:

September 4, 2014






The current concept of the nuclei of isotopes is that they all have the same number of protons and only differ by the number of included neutrons. This paper proposes an alternate model for the nucleus: the nucleotope. This model of nuclei has the number of protons and neutrons not differing from one another by more than a single unit; thus the up and down quarks do not differ by more than a singles unit either! The outward nuclear charge is determined by the number of included β- particles. The model is applied to the elements of the periodic table, particularly addressing tritium and why elements above lead are unstable α-particle emitters.--------------------------------- The reader is cautioned that Royal Society "Open Science" has deemed this paper unfit for inquiring eyes. The complete lone review states that "The proposed model is in conflict with more than half a century of basic nuclear and atomic data (magic numbers, charge measurements of ions, nuclear mass measurements, fragmentation, to name a few) and all data supporting the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix of the standard model of particle physics."---------------------------------------- It is faulty reasoning to assert that data supporting one model automatically excludes all other models. Adherents of the standard model would not want any new and significantly different model in the literature. In an "open science" world, ALL conceivable models would be aired!

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