Quantum Theory / Particle Physics
October 4, 2011
1) There are only two quarks, similar to the currently accepted up and down quarks. The others are composites. For example, the s quark often can be represented by the quark composition of the proton or neutron (or their antiparticle).
2) The d quark contains a positron or electron, along with other color charged particles, and when isolated (if possible) has integral ± 1 charge. Combining quarks probably results in asymmetric distribution of sub-quark particles, and apparent fractional quark charges.
3) Rearrangements resulting in distinct particle structural isomers can occur.