vortices in the atmosphere of the Sun, Sunspots, Galileo, several billion years, Eddington, Gamow, Severny, Ambartsumyan, Lomonosov, Mayer, Smulsky, protoplanetary gas and dust cloud, Byalko, main sequence, Belopolsky, Hadley and Ferrell cells, Herschel
Translated to English with Google Translate by Thomas E. Miles
The word "cyclone" is usually associated with windy, rainy, cloudy weather, but not with the sun. However, here we will not talk about vortices in the Earth's atmosphere (which are called "cyclones"), but about vortices in the atmosphere of the Sun. It was solar cyclones and vortices that were called sunspots in the 19th century. Sunspots, discovered by Galileo, look like small black dots, circles, like sun freckles (or moles), periodically appearing on the bright face of the Sun (Fig. 1). These solar vortices, as we show below, play a key role in the energy of the Sun and in its impact on the Earth.