All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Universal Transformers of Light Frequency in the Outer Space and on the Earth


Semikov, S. A.


Journal Reprints





Date Published:

December 2010




Ritz, Doppler effect, transformation of optical radiation, Ritz effect, binary stars, Halton Arp, pulsars and bursters, Mossbauer effect, Vavilov, LaRosa, Bonch-Bruevich




Presentation at Institute of Photonic Technologies


Translated to English with Google Translate by Thomas E. Miles


One of the relevant objectives of the modern science is to find the ways of transformation of optical radiation into other frequency ranges with the possibility of smooth or stepwise radiation frequency tuning. Already with the advent of nonlinear optics it has become obvious that instead of having a number of generators, one for each frequency range, it is easier to have a not very large laser source and a radiation frequency transformer for it, just the way reduction units and gear boxes are used in the cars for shaft rotation frequency transformation instead of a number of engines. Transformation of radiation frequency in the course of going through nonlinear media occurs due to the harmonic generation effects, parametric actions, stimulated Raman scattering, phase self-modulation and so on. With the advent of femtosecond lasers a more significant spectrum conversion has become possible, for instance that into X-ray (attosecond pulses) and terahertz ranges [1]. Herein we shall suggest a new, universal way of smooth conversion of the optical spectrum into any other range from gamma radiation to radio radiation.

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