Ritz ballistic principle, Maxwell's classical electrodynamics, MMX, TNX, Kaufmann, Aether, Lorenz-Fitzgerald, Occam's principle, Thomson, Newton, Galileo, corpuscles, rheons, Orlov, Ampere, Weber, Gauss and Riemann, Coulomb, motion of Mercury, LeSage
ABSTRACT: On the History and Philosophy of Science
Translated to English with Google Translate by Thomas E. Miles
As you know, the great crisis of classical physics broke out at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. and lasted until the 1920s. It was caused by the inability of the previous physical concepts to explain a number of experimentally discovered phenomena, as well as by the internal logical contradictions of the classical picture of the world. Thus, Maxwell's classical electrodynamics turned out to be incompatible with classical mechanics. Already Maxwell himself abandoned in his "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism"  from the concept of a mechanical Aether, which had contradictory properties and generated a lot of difficulties in the analysis of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. The experiments of Michelson, Trouton-Noble, Kaufmann only emphasized the contradictions between classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics [2-4]. This crisis was overcome by the efforts of G. Lorentz, A. Poincaré, A. Einstein and G. Minkowski, who laid the foundations for a new non-classical mechanics in the form of the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT), which turned out to be compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics, but rejected classical mechanics. The latter has since received the status of the limiting case of relativistic mechanics - the case of speeds much less than the speed of light.