All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

The Crisis of Classical Physics at the Beginning of the XX Century: Was Non-Classic Physics a Way Out of it?


Semikov, S. A.


Journal Reprints





Date Published:

June 2011




Ritz ballistic principle, Maxwell's classical electrodynamics, MMX, TNX, Kaufmann, Aether, Lorenz-Fitzgerald, Occam's principle, Thomson, Newton, Galileo, corpuscles, rheons, Orlov, Ampere, Weber, Gauss and Riemann, Coulomb, motion of Mercury, LeSage




ABSTRACT: On the History and Philosophy of Science


Translated to English with Google Translate by Thomas E. Miles


As you know, the great crisis of classical physics broke out at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. and lasted until the 1920s. It was caused by the inability of the previous physical concepts to explain a number of experimentally discovered phenomena, as well as by the internal logical contradictions of the classical picture of the world. Thus, Maxwell's classical electrodynamics turned out to be incompatible with classical mechanics. Already Maxwell himself abandoned in his "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism" [1] from the concept of a mechanical Aether, which had contradictory properties and generated a lot of difficulties in the analysis of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. The experiments of Michelson, Trouton-Noble, Kaufmann only emphasized the contradictions between classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics [2-4]. This crisis was overcome by the efforts of G. Lorentz, A. Poincaré, A. Einstein and G. Minkowski, who laid the foundations for a new non-classical mechanics in the form of the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT), which turned out to be compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics, but rejected classical mechanics. The latter has since received the status of the limiting case of relativistic mechanics - the case of speeds much less than the speed of light.

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