Semikov, S. A.
Quantum Theory / Particle Physics
Ritz, magnetic model of the atom, Thomson, Stark, Crookes, Bohr, Stern-Gerlach, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, Voigt, Balmer series
Translated to English with Google Translate by Thomas E. Miles
Scientists who saw at the beginning of the 19th century, the mysterious lines of the spectral lines of atoms, found themselves in the position of Egyptologists, who tried to decipher the hieroglyphs in the same years. After all, the structure of atoms, which cannot be seen in a magnifying glass, had to be comprehended without knowing the meaning of their spectral barcode, which helps to identify atoms as goods - at the checkout, or as a person - by fingerprints . The Rosetta stone helped Egyptologists to decipher, but the “atomologists” did not have such a key. According to one of them, W. Ritz, “Spectral measurements give us numerous documents with extreme accuracy, but, unfortunately, they are written in hieroglyphs, which we cannot decipher” [2, 3]. And yet Ritz solved this puzzle, and the magnet - “the stone of love” - became the Rosetta stone. After all, the first model of the atom that predicted the spectra of atoms, including hydrogen and alkali metals, was not planetary, but magnetic, and was put forward at the beginning of the 20th century by W. Ritz and J. Thomson, contemporaries of the heroes of Conan Doyle's books. Despite its successes, this model has been forgotten due to the early death of Ritz and the superstitions of quantum mechanics. A number of properties of atoms and their compounds are still not understood, and new studies reveal more and more discrepancies with the official quantum version.