All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Atomic Magnet and Spectral Code of the Atom


Semikov, S. A.


Journal Reprints


Quantum Theory / Particle Physics



Date Published:

June 2015




Ritz, magnetic model of the atom, Thomson, Stark, Crookes, Bohr, Stern-Gerlach, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, Voigt, Balmer series




Engineer Journal


Translated to English with Google Translate by Thomas E. Miles


Scientists who saw at the beginning of the 19th century, the mysterious lines of the spectral lines of atoms, found themselves in the position of Egyptologists, who tried to decipher the hieroglyphs in the same years. After all, the structure of atoms, which cannot be seen in a magnifying glass, had to be comprehended without knowing the meaning of their spectral barcode, which helps to identify atoms as goods - at the checkout, or as a person - by fingerprints [1]. The Rosetta stone helped Egyptologists to decipher, but the “atomologists” did not have such a key. According to one of them, W. Ritz, “Spectral measurements give us numerous documents with extreme accuracy, but, unfortunately, they are written in hieroglyphs, which we cannot decipher” [2, 3]. And yet Ritz solved this puzzle, and the magnet - “the stone of love” - became the Rosetta stone. After all, the first model of the atom that predicted the spectra of atoms, including hydrogen and alkali metals, was not planetary, but magnetic, and was put forward at the beginning of the 20th century by W. Ritz and J. Thomson, contemporaries of the heroes of Conan Doyle's books. Despite its successes, this model has been forgotten due to the early death of Ritz and the superstitions of quantum mechanics. A number of properties of atoms and their compounds are still not understood, and new studies reveal more and more discrepancies with the official quantum version.

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