All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

A Hydrodynamical Analysis of Fizeau's Experiment of Flowing Water [Milnes_TothMaatRev_v5n1(1986)2309-2328.PDF]


Milnes, Harold Willis


Journal Reprints


Mechanics / Electrodynamics



Date Published:

April 1986

Source Link:

© Toth-Maatian Review — Dr. T. E. Phipps, Jr. gift




Fresnel drag, Fizeau, MMX on flowing water, Zeeman, Kantor


In 1859, M. H. Fizeau reported the results of an experiment he had performed involving the convection of light waves by moving water. The experiment purported to verify a conjecture made earlier by A. Fresnel, an intimate friend of Fizeau's incidentally, that there would not be a completely additive effect between a moving medium and light convected by it, but that there would be only a partial effect and that the two velocities would combine according to a formula he hypothesized. Unfortunately for science, Fizeau failed to analyze the hydrodynamics of the fluid moving in his apparatus and this has never been undertaken by anyone since in the intervening century and a quarter. He jumped to a rash conclusion that the flow in his experimental equipment was at constant velocity. He made a grave error, one almost immediately apparent to a hydrodynamicist, that is, but one which it seems was not only not apparent to himself but has been overlooked now by several generations of scientists since, who have simply gone on accepting Fizeau's conclusions without carefully examining the analysis on which he based them.

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