September 27, 2021
In the present work, the exchange-process in the society of artisans, traders, service providers and slave owners is analyzed using the method of descending from the concrete to the abstract and the result of the analysis is represented in an abstract scheme of the exchange-process. According to this scheme, the society of artisans, traders, service providers and slave owners consists of three areas of life, the sphere of production, the sphere of consumption and the sphere of exchange, which join together to form a self-sustaining (= reproducing) cycle. The basic characteristic of the society of artisans, traders, service providers and slave owners compared to the society of hunters and gatherers is that in the Neolithic and Urban revolution, the sphere of exchange has entered between the sphere of production and consumption to mediate the exchange of commodities. Use values are produced in the sphere of production, labour power is produced in the sphere of consumption, and trade services are produced in the sphere of exchange. In order to be able to produce use values, the forces of production “labour power and means of production” are required, which must be in very specific, concrete and abstract relations of production during the production activity....