All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident: Arthur Schopenhauer -- In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual: Galileo Galilei -- Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it: Albert Einstein -- When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable must be the truth: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle -- We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough? Niels Bohr -- Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena: Ralph Waldo Emerson -- Since the mathematicians invaded Relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore: Albert Einstein -- I would say that the aether is a medium invented by man for the purpose of propagating his misconceptions from one place to another: W.F.G. Swann: -- Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone: Albert Einstein -- Physics is mathematical not because we know so much about the physical world, but because we know so little: Bertrand Russell -- If I could explain it to the average person, I would not have been worth the Nobel Prize: R. P. Feynman -- I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use: Galileo Galilei -- How dare we speak of the laws of chance? Is not chance the antithesis of all law?: Bertrand Russell -- Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I´m not sure about the former: Albert Einstein -- The glory of mathematics is that you don't have to say what you are talking about: Richard Feynman -- Anything is possible if you don´t know what you are talking about: Author Unknown -- In life, everything is relative - except Einstein´s theory: Leonid S. Sukhorukov -- Don´\'t worry about people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you´ll have to ram them down people´s throats: Howard Aiken --A day will come undoubtedly when the ether will be discarded as useless: H. Poincaré -- First they tell you you´re wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you´re right but it isn´t important; then they tell you it´s important but they knew it all along: Charles Kettering -- It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world: Aristotle -- The opposite of a true statement is a false statement. The opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth: Niels Bohr -- A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it: Max Planck -- Euclid taught me that without assumptions there is no proof. Therefore, in any argument, examine the assumptions: Eric Temple Bell -- Half this game is ninety percent mental: Yogi Berra

Understanding the Electron


Price, Lew Paxton




Mechanics / Electrodynamics



Date Published:

April 13, 2014






Light is caused by vibrating electrons. A single natural photon, one that is not limited by our one-second rule, is the result of multiple comings and goings of one electron. First the electron moves in one direction. Then it reverses itself to move in the opposite direction. It reverses itself again and continues to do so until it has lost the energy that initially prompted it to move. At the end of each of its little journeys back and forth, it rotates to point its mouth in the new direction of travel. When Planck derived his constant, other scientists began to use it in their calculations. Wilhelm Hallwachs and Heinrich R. Hertz discovered that light waves sent at an angle to a metal surface can eject electrons from the metal. The velocities of the ejected electrons were proportional to the frequency of the incident light rather than the intensity of the light. It was the number of ejected electrons which was proportional to the intensity of the light. Einstein proposed the theory that this phenomenon, in which light appears to be concentrated in packages of "hf ", means that each package can be absorbed only as a whole by an individual electron, so that the receiving electron is given an additional kinetic energy of "hf". In 1923, Arthur C. Compton showed that X-rays scattered from matter have an equation that can also be derived by postulating photons with a momentum of "hf/c", where "c" is the speed of light.

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