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Email: Israel Sadovnik

Big Bang and Particles

The theory of the " big bang " is constructed on the model of an " absolutely black body " when radiation and substance were in a condition of thermal balance. This view is also contained in the book "The First Three Minutes " by Steven Weinberg , Nobel Prize , 1979. And such a condition is possible only at T=0K.

What geometrical form have particles at T=0K? The answer is: According to the laws of physics: J. Charles ( 1787), Gay-Lussac ( 1802), V. Nernst ( 1910), A. Einstein (1925), particles in a vacuum cannot have volume and consequently should be flat figures. This means, particles have the geometrical form of a circle, as from all flat figures the circle has the most optimum form: C/D=pi. How is the material of life created from these particles?

The Story of Existence Born of Emptiness

My story begins in heaven in the kingdom of eternal cold. If we look at the night sky, we shall see a lot of stars surrounded by space. Hundred billions stars are grouped in Galaxies. And such Galaxies are also hundred billions. These Galaxies are divided by emptiness, which in modern science is named the vacuum. The mass of these Galaxies seems to be huge, but to compare this mass with its environmental space emptiness, this ratio is equal to volume of a small nut to an area as a size of Europe. Volume and mass of this nut does not influence thegeneral condition of the space of Europe, and the mass of all Galaxies does not influence the general condition of the vacuum. And according to the laws of physics (J. Charles, lord Kelvin, V. Nernst) the general condition of the vacuum is characterized in the lowest limited of absolute temperature T=0K. Men always admired and were interested in stars and was frightened of infinite emptiness. But we shall not be afraid of emptiness, we shall try to understand It.

In the ancient times, people believed that "terrestrial existence had arisen from nonentity, from emptiness". But in order to support this statement, people could quote religious experience or reference wise men of authority. Quantum physics confirms this fact but speaks about it using common words. I shall protect this point of view particularly, only referring to the formulas and laws of physics. And I do not introduce any new formulas of physics, but only known formulas and theory, and have collected them in a uniform, simple and clear picture of existence. If you, reader, think, that I subscribe to the correctness of complex formulas and proofs, you are mistaken. Nature develops from simple to complex. Therefore, the entry conditions of construction of existence cannot be complex. They are simple as, for example, 2+2=4. And only further on do they become complicated.

Quantum physics believes that in the vacuum exists an infinite set of "virtual" particles. How do these particles look? According to the laws of physics (J.Charles, Gay-Lussac, Nernst, Einstein) these particles have neither density nor volume i.e. they represent indefinitely thin flat figures. From all indefinitely flat figures the most ideal is the circle. Therefore all these "virtual" particles filling infinite Vacuum, have the geometrical form of the circle: C/D= Pi

Trying to explain the properties of gasses, scientists have entertained the concept of an ideal gas. This concept is not abstract, but represents a model of the vacuum. The Austrian scientist, Boltzmann, studying its "properties" has offered, that in it there are particles with a rest mass expressed in the formula, R/NA = k. A. A. Einstein, proceeding from completely different conditions (electrical) has offered , that the rest weight of a particle is described by the formula E0=M0c2. There are no influences acting in the vacuum on these particles. The particles are in a condition of rest and hence, their internal impulse is equal to zero, h=0. The particle in the vacuum has such a bouquet of concrete formulas.

But to stay in an eternal condition of rest is "a boring picture". The eternal monotony is awful. The vacuum does not render any influence on a particle. Therefore, output from a condition of rest and occurrence of movement is latent in the particle. Particle should act to change the condition of rest. What is the most simple action a particle can make? The form of a particle is a circle. Of all simple geometrical figures, the circle has the most optimum and symmetric form. In each point the circle is arranged by an identical image. So if a pulse strong enough is sent to any point of a circle, it will cause its rotation. It is similar to the rotation of a wheel when the pushed with a certain force on its edge. Such a phenomenon is made by a particle in a vacuum. At any moment of time this first particle transfers all internal impulse in one direction - on the edge and along a circle. The carry of an internal pulse is connected to change of a center of gravity of a particle. If earlier mass inherent in a particle, was distributed in regular intervals, now center of its weight under action of an internal impulse was displaced to edge of a circle. The former pulse h=0 has changed. Now pulse of a particle becomes whole and equal to unit: h=1. This impulse was discovered in 1900 by a German scientist ?. Planck studying the laws of radiation of an absolutely black body (model of Vacuum). This pulse deduces a particle from a condition of balance and informs it uniform, that is rectilinear movement with constant speed ?=1 in a direction of a pulse. The particle becomes quantum of light. Such an interpretation explains the corpuscular property of light.

However, investigating the quantum of light, man has found that alongside the corpuscular, it also has wave properties. How do we explain the occurrence of wave properties inherent in the same particle, the quantum of light? The misunderstanding of the problem of dualism in a discrete quantum of light results in a paradox. Let's try to understand this paradox. The wave properties of a quantum of light testify that the simple rectilinear movement of a quantum of light does not reflect completely all of its qualities. Therefore it is possible to assume that it has one more kind of movement caused by another impulse. What is special about this movement and impulse? The feature of new movement indicates that now, the quantum of light sends an internal pulse, not along the circle, and transfers the impulse (center of gravity) on the edge of a circle under any perpendicular to the plane. This impulse is directed to the center of the circle. As a result of this action, the particle, remaining in place, leaves the condition of balance and rotates(spins) around the diameter. The area of the circle S=PiR2 rotates around the diameter. This local rotation also is not connected to the movement of The particle. This kind of impulse was discovered in 1925 by the Dutch physicists, S. Goudsmit and G. Uhlenbeck. This impulse is described by the formula: h(bar)=h/2pi. Thus, the particle has an internal opportunity to make two impulses. In one case, it is a Planck impulse (h), forcing a particle to move in regular intervals, rectilinearly. In the other case, it is a Goudsmith-Uhlenbeck impulse (h(bar)=h/2p), forcing the particle to rotate around the diameter. Under the action of an impulse, a Planck (h=1) quantum of light moves rectilinearly. It dissects the vacuum by an indefinite thinness (the area of contact with the vacuum is minimal) and consequently any changes in the environment is not observed. However as a result of action of a Goudsmith-Uhlenbeck impulse,h(bar)=h/2p there are radical changes, both with the particle, and in the environmental vacuum. The particle, as a result of this impulse, changes the geometrical form to a psuedo-sphere and changes all its physical parameters (mass, energy). All these changes are mathematically described by the Lorents transformations. As a result of an impulse h(bar)=h/2p the particle rotates around the diameter and finds the properties of the charge, which is mathematically described by the formula of electron e=(hca)1/2. And having energy E=h(bar)w. The rotation creates electrical waves in such an electron in the vacuum. The Bible says that in the beginning, God created the quantum of light as the first particle. But God neglected to explain the physical properties of it, therefore man aspired to solve this secret by himself. And with such an interpretation, the corpuscular and wave properties of quantum of light, its "dualism" becomes clear.

Dear Reader:
From ancient times, man aspired to understand the reason for movement. Gradually in physics there were two points of view on the subject.

1. In classical physics, it is considered that the reason for movement of bodies is owing to external influences.
2. In quantum physics, it was required to enter the term "the internal impulse of a particle". It is not I, who represented the internal impulse of a particle. This term is used in all books about physics. But making these words nobody represents this process evidently.
I have simply decided to imagine from the evidence how this impulse looks. And with these claims, I ask you to address to physicians. They, to be honest, should decide: a) Refuse the term "an internal impulse of a particle".
b) Accept this term as a reality, and then it is necessary to understand its origin.
If we refuse the terminology "the internal impulse of a particle", we shall turn into people who are unable to express their ideas. If we accept this term as a reality, then it is necessary to reconsider our view of the world.

From my story unexpected conclusions follow.
A quantum of light exists in the vacuum and nothing influences it. It is independent and decides in which of the three conditions it occurs.

1. In a condition of rest its internal impulse is equal to zero h=0.
2 .In a condition of uniform rectilinear movement its impulse h=1.
3. In a condition of rotation around of the diameter its impulse h(bar)=h/2p.

And if the quantum of light independently makes a decision, when and in what condition it is, it testifies the presence in a particle of a beginning of consciousness, the presence of free will. They are alive, spiritual particles. Their consciousness cannot be stifled. Their consciousness is capable of evolution, as is told in the ancient books "from vague desire up to a clear idea".

This evolution proceeds during a hundred million years. And if to ponder more deeply upon my story and ask: "What has caused these conscious particles?" you will find a deep silence. Because on the one hand - you understand, that they could be caused by something more conscious. Something Absolute, Great, Infinite, Immense, which disappears behind the absolute temperature T = 0K. On the other hand - if you are not capable to understand, that IT, you are not capable to capture IT. You are simply involuntarily covered by a deep amazement and silence before that Immensity that has no name. You are shaken, become transfixed before this Immensity. This instant should be experienced through a feeling of unexpected amazement:

1) Understand, that there is something called Absolute Conscious.
2) You feel that it is impossible to capture IT.
Therefore, Lao Tzu wrote: "The Tao, that can be expressed by words, is not the eternal, original, absolute Tao. " And then it becomes clear, why the ancient Egyptians in a sacred treatise have written: " the universe is something intellectual ". It becomes clear, why in Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism that to Great emptiness is attributed a creative beginning. It becomes clear, why the strict, logical analysis confirms the correctness of ancient beliefs, which spoke: "There is a Great emptiness And anything sacred is in it". But then, expressing already their subjective human opinion, added: " But we people, like flowers, avoid thorns ".

However, we are surrounded by the material world consisting of lifeless material particles. How are these lifeless material particles formed? Let's assume that in any local area of the vacuum there was a huge quantity of particles in a condition of rest R/NA = k. Between them, there was a particle, which at any moment of time unexpectedly began to rotate around its diameter, i.e. has found energy E = h(bar)w. The process occurs at super low temperatures, and the particles in a condition of rest do not render any electrical resistance to a rotating particle. Then about an actively rotating particle (electron) the first layer is formed which is characterized by a physical condition received the name Helium-II. This layer has temperature up to 2,17K and has remarkable properties: super thermal conductivity and super fluidity. This layer is passes to other particles forming the layer, Helium-I. A major feature of this layer is that "even light falling on it, forces it to boil". The temperature of this boiling liquid reaches up to 4,2K. An actively rotating particle E = h(bar)w gradually results in rotary movement of the entire system.

The properties of the element Helium sharply differs from all other elements in nature. It also rotates, not as all other liquids. If we twirl Helium very much, it resembles an elastic body. Why? Because Helium consists of particles having the form a circle. At their rotation these circles are arranged with each other so that form an elastic body. These elastic bodies twist in separate layers of elastic straps. Also there is a sharp friction between different layers of straps. Further, these layers of elastic straps fracture into different parts which have received the name Helium-III3He and Helium-IV4He. The rotation and collision of these particles at any stage result in their further splitting into the smallest material particles, which have received the name of proton (p). The interaction between a proton, various kinds Helium, and passive particles (k) forms thermonuclear reactions, which results in the formation of stars. Some stars within the current of time are cooled and turn into planets. On these planets, there is a new concept of space and time. Gradually there are conditions for development of new material life. To the internal inhabitants of these planets, their space and the time will seem absolute. For measurements, they will use the geometry of Euclid, and then the laws of Newton and Maxwell. Then someone on this planet will begin to study the micro world and will find the dualistic behavior of particles, that the distribution of energy is not continuous, and in quanta, the existence of an internal impulse of a particle. He will be surprised by this fact. The man again will reflect about the riddle of the micro world.

Now we have two completely different types of particles. One particle has enormous potential energy E = Mc2, which in a condition of vigorous activity has the energy, E = h(bar)w and charge e=(hca)1/2. Its vigorous activity is connected with its own internal impulse. This active spiritual particle (the quantum of light, electron), has initial consciousness. Another type of a particle in a condition of rest has zero energy E=0. And in a condition of the vigorous activity has energy E=Mv2/2. The external enclosed forces cause the vigorous activity of this particle. It is a passive non spiritual material particle - proton.

The history of development of the diverse material world around us begins with the interaction of these two particles. The first step is the electromagnetic interaction. At this stage the charge (electron) rotates in a place near to a material particle and electrical field creates a magnetic field. Their union forms an electromagnetic field. The second step of their interaction is nuclear. At this stage, the charge (electron) is directly pasted to a proton. How are they glued? The electron, rotating in proximity to a proton, so softens an environment of a proton that its surface represents, not a firm sphere, but a viscous surface. The immersing in this viscous surface pastes an electron to a proton. This gluing increases the weight of a proton many times over. Having pasted to a viscous surface of a proton, the electron makes two movements - around the proton and around its diameter. This interrelation results in the creation of the elementary atom - hydrogen.

Gradually there is a complex atom. Under the law "to an interdiction of Pauli" in each complex atom, there can be only one electron. If there are more than one electrons (for example two) in the atom, this atom is already abnormal, this atom represents a "Siamese twin". In a complex atom, around one electron, many other protons are grouped. The lectron constantly plies between them, changing their electrical condition. Therefore, one particle is named proton, and the other, neutron. Simultaneously, there is an evolution of a spiritual particle and the development of the material world. The simplest organisms are created and then more complex organisms. Flora and fauna are created. A ring of this creation is man. And the architect of this construction is the spiritual particle (quantum of light, electron). Quantum of light (electron), which creates man and in it, "spirit". In a quantum of light (electron), there is a lot of billions of years (from the point of view of the man, eternity) of study to cooperate with material particles. Therefore in religion they speak that the spirit is eternal, and physicists speak that the electron is eternal. Not understanding one another, they conduct among themselves a dispute: " who is right? " There can be those who still want to argue. Who of them is right? I don't have such an desire. The problems "consciousness - matter", " soul and body " are solved within the framework of the interaction of these two particles.

What physical laws are connected to the behavior of a spiritual particle (quantum of light, electron)?

The first law: The law of preservation and transformation of energy.
This law describes the transition of a particle from a condition of energy of rest E0 =M0c2 into a condition of vigorous activity e=(hca)1/2, E=h(bar)w and on the contrary. In religion this law is interpreted as incarnation (transformation of soul). The ancient wise men said: "Life does not begin with birth and does not come to an end by death ".

The second law: The law of non-additive interaction between a spiritual and material particle, which is described "non commutative algebra", in which product ab is not equal ba. It means that electron (a) can cooperate with a material particle (b) only by means of the electrical field. And the particle (b) at interaction with the electron (a) should create any other action (for example impact, collision).

The third law: The law of the interaction between these particles with the materialistic carries a probabilistic character and is described by the law "ratio of uncertainty" /Heisenberg/. The sense of this law and its formulas are the exact definition of time, that a future event is unpredictable and has a probabilistic basis.

The fourth law: The law of interrelation of reason and consequence. In physics this interrelation carries a probabilistic character. However, in religion this fact of interrelation carries the name "Karma" and it has deep moral sense. The law of Karma says: " The Behavior in the present life renders influence on the subsequent life "

I do not ask the reader to believe of my story. I ask the reader to base their beleif on experience.

How? There are the same physical processes in biological systems as in lifeless material systems. And in physics, there is a section which studies process of interaction of a quantum of light with material substances. This process is divided into two kinds:

1) linear (non coherent),
2) nonlinear (coherent).

The sense of these processes is the following one.. Each man bears in himself a quantum of light (electron - spirit), which is the impartial source of our life. But if a quantum of light works only as a charge, a "battery", like a source of energy allowing a machine to work, it is not sentient. In the "Bhagavad-Gita" it is told: "The fools laugh at me, when I descend in the image of man. They do not know my transcendental nature of managing everything that exists."

How do we learn about the quantum of light (electron), my "I"? The behavior of a man is controlled by fourteen billion neurons in the brain. They are exited to a different degree, radiate energies of different frequencies, different phases (non coherent radiation of a brain). Such radiation yields the weak electrical field of the quantum of light and the man does not know "I". However there are situations when the energy neurons of a brain so weaken that the electrical field of a quantum of light becomes prevalent (coherent radiation of the brain). In this situation the man can learn his "I" or solve any of the the earlier non-authorized problems (tasks). In science, this instant name "to make opening", in religion they say "has condescended revelation".

The ancient wise men knew that this short-term effect could be developed in them with the help of personal religious practice. But to achieve success in this is more difficult than to achieve external success.

I want to finish my story by the following questions:

1. What kind of God is there?
2. What is a quantum of light?
3. How is material substance formed?
4. How does life arise?
5. Why are there physical laws?
6. Who am I?
7. What is religion?
8. Whether there is a theoretical unity between physics and religion?
9. What is life?