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Email: Israel Sadovnik |

In modern science there are two mutually exclusive points of view on the behaviour of particles in a Vacuum. One point of view is the position of classical physics which says that:

In the vacuum at T=0K any movement of a particle stops.

And if in the Empire of Cold there is no movement, it is a dead empire.

But another point of view completely rejects this formulation. This point of view is expressed in the quantum theory. In 1911, M. Planck stated that energy does not become zero at the approach T=0K. He declared this on the 1st Solvay congress. So " Energy at T=0K" became the main problem in physics because, Physics is first of all "the vacuum". Gradually it began to appear that Vacuum at T=0K is not empty dead space. There live the "virtual" particles. These particles originally have negative and imaginary mass, and then make a virtual transition » to positive mass, becoming real particles. But the apparently mystical "virtual particles" as they make "virtual transitions". explains little.

Let's rethink these "virtual" particles. Let's ask a question: What is the geometrical form of "virtual" particles in the Vacuum at T=0K? The answer is:

According to the laws of physics (J. Charles, Gay-Lussac, V. Nernst, A. Einstein ) particles in a Vacuum cannot have volume and consequently should be flat figures. This means, particles have the geometrical form of a circle, as from all flat figures the circle has the most optimum form: C/D=p. What are these "virtual" circles in the vacuum? The answer is given in the theory of radiation of absolute black bodies. The theory considers an area of the space which are in absolute thermal balance. It is possible only at T=0K. But it is known, that such a condition is a "thermal death" and is not observed in nature. Therefore Planck, studying this area, came to the conclusion that condition T=0K has changed. In this space there should be a radiation of a quantum of light, possessing an internal impulse h=Et=1. So, « the virtual circle » is transformed to quantum of light. This quantum of light has an impulse h=Et=1 and travels with constant speed, C=1. From this assumption Quantum theory was born.

Therefore the Quantum theory is a theory only about a quantum of light and its various transformations. And classical theory considers all other particles. These particles have mass much greater than a quantum of light and move with much smaller speeds. If we understand the difference between a quantum of light and all other particles, then all contradictions in the physics disappear, and all of physics becomes a harmoniously integral science.

Approximately 350 years ago H. Huygens introduced into a science the concept of the Ether. Since then there have been constructed many models. All of them are covered by dust on shelves of science history. But, till now, a theory of the vacuum has not been constructed. Is there a necessity to build new models of the vacuum? No! A theory of the vacuum has already existed for a long time. It was included into various sections of physics under the name of "abstract model". Let's consider these "abstract models" and we shall understand their reality.

All sections of Physics are connected by the vacuum. The first theory which describes the vacuum is the theory of an ideal gas.
This theory considers The condition of particles at T=0K. The particles do not
interact with one another.
From this it follows, that the particles in the vacuum should be flat figures. This means, that
the particles have the geometrical shape of a circle, because of all flat figures, the circle
has the optimum shape, C/D = pi
Also from the theory it ensues that in a state of rest, the gravitational particle mass is
described by the formula R/N_{A} = k

The second theory, which describes the vacuum, is "Radiation of an absolute black body". The theory considers an area of space which is located in an absolute temperature balance. This is possible only at T=0K, but it is known that such a condition is called "thermal death". Such a condition does not exist in the nature. Therefore Planck, studying this phenomenon, had come to the conclusion that in order to change such a condition as T=0K, in space where the change is taking place, there should be the radiation of a light quantum having its own internal impulse, h=Et.

Einstein studied this area of science and had come to the conclusion, that there should be a radiation of a light quantum having its own internal impulse, h=kb.

Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory is also connected with the vacuum. His theory considers the electron (an electric charge), which rotates around its own axis, in a local point of the vacuum. This rotation creates an electrical wave. These waves, being in contact with material particles, create an electromagnetic field. Then many physicists (Abraham, Poincare, Lorentz, Einstein and other) were interested in the question, "What will happen to the "rest" electron (Maxwell's) when it moves?" Einstein's SRT arose from this idea.

Einstein's SRT is the fourth theory. This theory describes space in which a gravitational field is not present. Therefore, the theory considers the vacuum at T=0K and the behavior of particles (light quanta) in it. (A desire to link SRT to a gravitational field had brought Einstein to the creation of GRT).

In one of the postulates of SRT is written that the theory considers rectilinear motion of a light quantum in the vacuum with a constant speed.
This proves again, that without the acuum this theory cannot be considered. When the mathematics describe that a certain action in SRT happens in any
abstract negative four-dimensional space, it means, that this space is in fact nothing but a real
**absolute vacuum**.
From the theory it follows that the quantum of light in a state of rest is described
by the formula e/m=c^{2}. Changes in the rectilinear and equable motion of the quantum of light, which moves with a constant speed, are described by a "Lorentz transformation".

There is one more theory which is inextricably related to the vacuum - quantum physics. This theory asserts that by interacting with the vacuum, an electron has infinite values of mass, charge. The origin of infinite values of electron parameters is connected to its physical and geometrical changes. An electron loses its volume and transforms to a flat circle. In such an interpretation disappears the necessity to use a "method of renormalization", by which mathematicians, as R. Feynman has said, "sweep the dust under a carpet".

Classic physics asserts, that in a vacuum at T=0K, the motion of particles cease. This is fair in relation to the particles with a mass of one proton and above, which move with a low speed. Quantum physics asserts that in a Vacuum at T=0K, there is a constant motion of particles. This is reasonabli in relation to the quantums of light (electrons), which move with the speed of light and higher.

The average density of all matter in the Universe is insignificantly small... approximately
p = 10^{-30} g/cm^{3}.
The vacuum is the basic substance in the universe. From the vacuum,this small insignificant
amount of matter is born. Physics is first of all vacuum which is characterized by one
simple physical characteristic T= 0K.