Quantum Theory / Particle Physics
October 1, 2017
Physicists have known that mechanical forces can be described by a set of equations that are similar to Maxwell’s equations since Oliver Heaviside first proposed it in 1893. His and most subsequent theories attempt to combine gravity with electromagnetism, but run into difficulties because there is no negative mass or negative gravity to form a dipole analogous to the electric charge dipole. Gravity also works in the wrong direction. In 1930 Paul Dirac interpreted the solutions to the equation bearing his name as forms of positive and negative energy, even though there is no negative energy in standard physics theory. A few years later these were identified as matter and antimatter. His speculative thoughts on the behavior of this positive and negative “energy” were analogous to the characteristics of a dipole. In the years that followed we have learned that all forms of matter exhibit short-range repulsion, which is normally attributed to the Pauli exclusion principle. Additionally, matter and antimatter can be thought to have a strong short-range attraction just prior to annihilation. As such, matter and antimatter are known to participate in force interactions consistent with a dipole, and this paper examines some of our scientific knowledge that supports the existence of the matter-antimatter dipole.