Quantum Theory / Particle Physics
January 30, 2015
Historically, nuclear modeling came down to two complimentary ideas, the Nuclear Shell Model and the Liquid Drop Model. Certain combinations of neutrons and protons in closed shells led to exceptionally stable isotopes, and these were referred to as the magic numbers: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126. There was no apparent pattern to this number sequence, only an experimental observation that there is a discontinuity of about 1 MeV in binding energy as each of these boundaries is crossed, i.e., an extra nucleon is loosely bound.
A new phenomenological Electro-dynamic Model of the nucleus has been constructed by separately modeling a proton and a neutron using a classical electromagnetic approach first suggested by Arthur Compton. Using these two nucleon representations, different nuclei are arranged by placing neutrons and protons in static geometric positions, where the force balance has minimum energy. These positions have been verified numerically using a variational minimization technique. The intrinsic mass of a nucleon is ~ 99%. Some mass equivalent is stored in EM Fields between nucleons, and some mass equivalent is stored in EM fields inside a nucleon. The masses of all individual isotopes that were calculated are in agreement with the measured values within less than a tenth of a percent, thus mimicking the experimentally measured binding energy per nucleon curve.